Clarity Type System
The Clarity language uses a strong static type system. Function arguments and database schemas require specified types, and use of types is checked during contract launch. The type system does not have a universal super type.
Functions specified via
define-public statements are public functions and these are the only types of functions which may be called directly through signed blockchain transactions. In addition to being callable directly from a transaction (see the Stacks wire formats for more details on Stacks transactions), public functions may be called by other smart contracts.
Public functions must return a
(response ...) type. This is used by Clarity to determine whether or not to materialize any changes from the execution of the function. If a function returns an
(err ...) type, any mutations on the blockchain state from executing the function (and any function that it called during execution) will be aborted.
In addition to functions defined via
define-public, contracts may expose read-only functions. These functions, defined via
define-read-only, are callable by other smart contracts, and may be queryable via public blockchain explorers. These functions may not mutate any blockchain state. Unlike normal public functions, read-only functions may return any type.
A smart contract may call functions from other smart contracts using a
This function returns a response type result -- the return value of the called smart contract function.
We distinguish 2 different types of
The callee is a known, invariant contract available on-chain when the caller contract is deployed. In this case, the callee's principal is provided as the first argument, followed by the name of the method and its arguments:
The callee is passed as an argument, and typed as a trait reference (
(define-public (swap (token-a <can-transfer-tokens>)
(unwrap! (contract-call? token-a transfer-from? owner-a owner-b amount-a))
(unwrap! (contract-call? token-b transfer-from? owner-b owner-a amount-b))))
Traits can either be locally defined:
(define-trait can-transfer-tokens (
(transfer-from? (principal principal uint) (response uint)))
Or imported from an existing contract:
Looking at trait conformance, callee contracts have two different paths. They can either be "compatible" with a trait by defining methods matching some of the methods defined in a trait, or explicitly declare conformance using the
Explicit conformance should be prefered when adequate. It acts as a safeguard by helping the static analysis system to detect deviations in method signatures before contract deployment.
The following limitations are imposed on contract calls:
- On static dispatches, callee smart contracts must exist at the time of creation.
- No cycles may exist in the call graph of a smart contract. This prevents recursion (and re-entrancy bugs). Such structures can be detected with static analysis of the call graph, and will be rejected by the network.
contract-call?are for inter-contract calls only. Attempts to execute when the caller is also the callee will abort the transaction.